The agency is responsible for controlling, and maintaining the distribution of transportation, advertisement, exportation, importation, manufacture, and the registration of the categories of products such as drugs, chemicals, consumable goods, cosmetics, biological, and medical services.

The NAFDAC requirements for the production or importation of food, drugs, or consumable goods in Nigeria depend on whether such items are produced locally or abroad.

Under the law establishing the Agency (NAFDAC Act), it is unlawful to market any drugs or consumable goods in Nigeria to the public without due registration with the NAFDAC. If any company is set up in Nigeria for the importation or manufacturing of food drugs or consumable products, all the products produced by such a company must be registered with the agency.